Asha'ille is undergoing a spelling reform and this page might not have been updated yet!

If you see many apostrophes, it's pre-reform. If you see î and only a few apostrophes, it's post-reform. — Arthaey

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This text is part of the first Inverse Relay, in which the previous participant sends you a text in your own conlang. There are no grammar notes or glossaries passed along; after all, it's your language! :) We made it a requirement of participation that your language be well-documented, either online or in documents that you emailed to the previous participant before the start of the relay. As such, only relatively mature conlangs were involved in this Inverse Relay.

The original Asha'ille text was written by Elliott Lash on August 3rd, 2007. I translated from his Asha'ille into Kamakawi, David Peterson's conlang on August 5th. The analyzed Asha'ille that you see on this page, however, is the "corrected" Asha'ille that I wrote, based on Elliott's text. I have included explanatory paragraphs interspersed between the sentences.

The Asha'ille text has been updated to reflect the spelling reform that occurred after the relay.

My Kamakawi contains much the same kind of errors as does Elliott's Asha'ille. I will link to David's analysis when he puts it online.

Orthographic

Asha'ille

[1] Ayana ne en̤i jho sarn. [2] Keyanu ne rékretîl.

[3] Pithevni vesaer kunath esún k'. [4] Jhor en̤i t'îroyî. [5] Arîn kénjeni ne das chiróm, [6] kret vesîk mirv kuna k', t'ves kénkeni n'om. [7] Én'i ne chipal shola te nyaiòl. [8] Vel en̤i mirv cchiyan 'sa mleni ejh. [9] Dirshavejh sshak vëp esejh énîllev n'yaiòl k'? [10] Sshavni sshak kénkeni ne das chiróm! [11] Sshavejh sshak mirvenil nom [12] vedá vesaer mlecîm feilán, mlunsa eseire k'kedá.

English

[1] This is a story about a boy. [2] Once upon a time, [3] the boy rested beneath night sky. [4] He was a nightwatcher. [5] He was trying to be able to see all the stars, [6] but then came night, and he couldn't see them. [7] He began to feel sad and melacholy. [8] A young woman came to him (she was his beloved). [9] She said, "Why are you feeling melancholy?" [10] He said, "I can't see all the stars!" [11] She said, "They should come [12] from beneath their house's darkness."

Asha'ille (Elliott Lash's)

[1] Ayana n'eni jho sarn. [2] Keyanu ne rékretil, [3] pas pithevni vesaer kunath esún ke. [4] Jhor'iroyi t'eni. [5] Arin kénjeni ne das chiróm, [6] kret'vesik mirv kuna k', t'kénkeni nom. [7] Eisarvni énillev ne shola te nyai'ol. [8] Mirv cchiyan vel'eni k' (jhor'cchiyan t'ejhsa). [9] Dirshavejh ssha vëp'esni énillev ne nyai'ol kep? [10] Sshavpeni ssha kénkeni ne das chiróm! [11] Sshavpejh ssha mirvenil [12] vedá vesaer eseire mlo feilán kedá k'.

Kamakawi (Mine)

[1] I ikeve'a popataki. [2] [3] Ka helaumi lea e'i ele uomoko. [4] Ke lea i pelinute uomoko. [5] Ke mata lea i uila inivie tou uoi, [6] e ka ale uomoko ko, e ka mata lea i uamo tou oku. [7] Ke hekopu lea i kelea. [8] Ka ale eine poke nea i taketuli oipataki ko. [9] Ke ulaya nea ti, "A kopu ia i kelea koku ai." [10] Ka hekala lea ti, "A mata ei i uila inivie tou oku!" [11] Ka hekala nea ti, "Au male mimu uamo [12] popale kolu."

Parts of Speech Legend

Q
question
adj
adjective
adv
adverb
asp
aspect
conj
conjunction
cop
copula
deix
deixis
mi
modifier
mood
mood
n
noun
part
particle
pl
plural
poss
possessive
pro
pro-form
prsn
person
quo
quotation
v
verb

Interlinear

orthographic version
morphemic breakdown
IPA pronunciation
part of speech
translation
Asha'ille (Elliott Lash's): translation
Kamakawi (Mine): translation
Ayana ne en̤i jho sarn.
ayana ne en̤i jho sarn
ɑˈjɑnɑ ɛnːˈi ʒo sɑɹn
deix art pro cop n
SUBJECTS OBJ self yes boy
This is a story about a boy.
Asha'ille (Elliott Lash's): Ayana n'eni jho sarn.
Kamakawi (Mine): I ikeve'a popataki.

While in almost all other cases ne en'i is contracted to n'i, the ayana deixis word does not contract the ne.

Keyanu ne rékretîl.
keyanu ne rékretîl
kɛˈjɑnu ˈɹɛkɹɛtɪl
n art n
TIME OBJ long ago
Once upon a time,
Asha'ille (Elliott Lash's): Keyanu ne rékretil,
Pithevni vesaer kunath esún k'.
pithev -ni vesaer kuna -îth esún ke
piˈθɛv ni vɛˈseɹ ˈkunɑ ɪθ ɛˈsun
v prsn adv n adj n adv
rest (self) under night ADJ sky (end-ADV)
the boy rested beneath night sky.
Asha'ille (Elliott Lash's): pas pithevni vesaer kunath esún ke.
Kamakawi (Mine): Ka helaumi lea e'i ele uomoko.

Because the time deixis already established that we are in the past tense, pas is not necessary. It's not ungrammatical, but it's stylistically non-standard.

Jhor en̤i t'îroyî.
jhor en̤i te îroyî
ʒoɹ ɛnːˈi ɪˈɹojɪ
cop pro conj n
EQUIV self and nightwatcher
He was a nightwatcher.
Asha'ille (Elliott Lash's): Jhor'iroyi t'eni.
Kamakawi (Mine): Ke lea i pelinute uomoko.

There is much cultural significance surrounding the word îroyî. Discussion of this term and the associated cultural practices belongs in the Culture section of this site, but that document has not actually been written yet. :P Since there is no such discussion around the îroyîm̤da, Elliott would have had no way of knowing this particular word's significance. Even so, the rest of this text fits surprisingly well with Cresaean culture.

Arîn kénjeni ne das chiróm,
arîn kénîllev -j- -ni ne das chiró -îm
ˈɑɹɪn ˈkɛnɪlɛv ʤ ni dɑs ʧiˈɹo ɪm
part v part prsn art adj n pl
try see able (self) OBJ all star PL
He was trying to be able to see all the stars,
Asha'ille (Elliott Lash's): Arin kénjeni ne das chiróm,
Kamakawi (Mine): Ke mata lea i uila inivie tou uoi,

The -j- modifies the verb it binds to, in this case kénîllev. If you wanted to say that the boy was able to try to see (a funny phrasing, but maybe what you want to say if it was previously unclear whether the boy was blind, or wounded), you would say arînjo kén'i.

Note that this means jejherî́dîm can attached to certain adverbs, such as arîn, so long as an epenthetic -o is added.

kret vesîk mirv kuna k', t'ves kénkeni n'om.
kret vesîk mirv kuna kesîk te ves kénîllev -k- -ni ne no -îm
kɹɛt ˈvɛsɪk miɹv ˈkunɑ ˈkɛsɪk vɛs ˈkɛnɪlɛv k ni no ɪm
conj conj v n adv conj conj v part prsn art n pl
but then come night (end-then) and while see unable (self) OBJ it PL
but then came night, and he couldn't see them.
Asha'ille (Elliott Lash's): kret'vesik mirv kuna k', t'kénkeni nom.
Kamakawi (Mine): e ka ale uomoko ko, e ka mata lea i uamo tou oku.

A minor, and undocumented, grammatical error: te cannot conjoin two independent clauses; you must use t'ves instead.

Én'i ne chipal shola te nyaiòl.
énîllev -ni ne chipal shola te nyaiòl
ˈɛnɪlɛv ni ˈʧipɑl ˈʃolɑ njɑi̯ˈʔol
v prsn art adj n conj n
feel (self) OBJ half sadness and melancholy
He began to feel sad and melacholy.
Asha'ille (Elliott Lash's): Eisarvni énillev ne shola te nyai'ol.
Kamakawi (Mine): Ke hekopu lea i kelea.

A more literal "fixing" of Elliott's Asha'ille would have been: Eisarvni ne énîllevon done shola nyaiòl. However, a more fluent translation of He began to feel sad and melancholy should use chipal with its incipient meaning.

Also, note that when an -îllev verb is shortened, it really wants an attached conjugation added, even if no subject change has happened since the last verb. While it's grammatical to say just én, for instance, it sounds funny, like something a foreigner would say.

Vel en̤i mirv cchiyan 'sa mleni ejh.
vel en̤i mirv cchiyan alun- -sa ml-ml -ni ejh
vɛl ɛnːˈi miɹv ʧə̆ˈʧijɑn ɑˈlun ml ni ɛʒ
adv pro v n mi mi poss prsn n
toward self come young woman PREV 1 (intangible possession) (self) beloved
A young woman came to him (she was his beloved).
Asha'ille (Elliott Lash's): Mirv cchiyan vel'eni k' (jhor'cchiyan t'ejhsa).
Kamakawi (Mine): Ka ale eine poke nea i taketuli oipataki ko.

Two things are non-standard — though completely grammatical — with Elliott's above translation. First, a one-word adverb (vel'en i) stylistically wants to precede the verb. Second, the parenthetical comment about the subject is more fluently translated as a description of the subject, either via egik or the more colloquial alunsa, used above in my version of the translation.

Presumably, Elliott's use of the pronoun ejhsa in place of the noun ejh, beloved, dear, was an accident on his part.

Dirshavejh sshak vëp esejh énîllev n'yaiòl k'?
dirshav -ejh sshak vep ¨ esv -ejh énîllev ne nyaiòl kep
diɹˈʃɑv ɛʒ ʃə̆ˈʃɑk vɛp ɛsv ɛʒ ˈɛnɪlɛv njɑi̯ˈʔol kɛp
v prsn quo adv Q asp prsn v art n adv
ask (beloved) (end-quote) because Q (ablaut) PRG (beloved) feel OBJ melancholy (end-because)
She said, "Why are you feeling melancholy?"
Asha'ille (Elliott Lash's): Dirshavejh ssha vëp'esni énillev ne nyai'ol kep?
Kamakawi (Mine): Ke ulaya nea ti, "A kopu ia i kelea koku ai."

The word ssha is meant for direct quotations that do not end a sentence/utterance. The word ká'sshak ends such an embedded quotation. If the quotation ends the sentence, the word sshak is used instead. I didn't document this anywhere, however, so Elliott had no way of knowing this rule.

I assume that, in Elliott's translation where the girlfriend (or whatever) asks the boy why esni énillev, I am feeling, he actually meant for her to be asking the boy why he was feeling down. The ssha(k) introduces a direct quotation, and as such is relative to the speaker's perspective. So, she should have said esejh énillev, beloved is (you are) feeling.

Sshavni sshak kénkeni ne das chiróm!
sshav -ni sshak kénîllev -k- -ni ne das chiró -îm
ʃə̆ˈʃɑv ni ʃə̆ˈʃɑk ˈkɛnɪlɛv k ni dɑs ʧiˈɹo ɪm
v prsn quo v part prsn art adj n pl
say (self) (end-quote) see unable (self) OBJ all star PL
He said, "I can't see all the stars!"
Asha'ille (Elliott Lash's): Sshavpeni ssha kénkeni ne das chiróm!
Kamakawi (Mine): Ka hekala lea ti, "A mata ei i uila inivie tou oku!"

The past tense marker on the verb, -p-, is not necessary here. While normal verbs' changing of tense does need to be "reset", the tense within a direct quotation is assumed to be in the present relative to the overall tense, and so doesn't actually change the default tense of the main narrative.

Sshavejh sshak mirvenil nom
sshav -ejh sshak mirv -enil no -îm
ʃə̆ˈʃɑv ɛʒ ʃə̆ˈʃɑk miɹv ɛnil no ɪm
v prsn quo v mood n pl
say (beloved) (end-quote) come should it PL
She said, "They should come
Asha'ille (Elliott Lash's): Sshavpejh ssha mirvenil
Kamakawi (Mine): Ka hekala nea ti, "Au male mimu uamo

This last sentence is the one I'm least confident in translating; all the others were very straightforward, being essentially correct. This sentence, however, makes the most sense in context if I assume Elliott forgot to add a subject to the girl's quotation: Elliott's mirvenil..., I (or you, depending on context) should come..., probably meant to be mirvenil nom ('sa chiróm)..., they (the clouds) should come....

vedá vesaer mlecîm feilán, mlunsa eseire k'kedá.
vedá vesaer ml-ml -ec -îm feilán ml-ml alun- -sa eseire ke kedá
vɛˈdɑ vɛˈseɹ ml ɛk ɪm feˈlɑn ml ɑˈlun ɛˈseɹɛ ˈkɛdɑ
adv adv poss prsn pl n poss mi mi n adv adv
from under (intangible possession) 3SN PL house (intangible possession) PREV 1 darkness (end-ADV) (end-from)
from beneath their house's darkness."
Asha'ille (Elliott Lash's): vedá vesaer eseire mlo feilán kedá k'.
Kamakawi (Mine): popale kolu."

I believe this is the first case of embedded possesion: their house's darkness. Their house would be mlecîm feilán; their darkness would be mlecîm eseire; the house's darkness would be mlo feilán eseire. I had no documented case of combining possessives, so Elliott's way of handling it makes perfect sense.

But I think I'll coin a new way of doing things, in this case. A cumbersome but grammatical way of getting the point across will be mlecîm feilán, mlo feilán eseire, literally their house, the house's darkness. The more fluent, "normal" phrasing will be mlecîm feilán, mlunsa eseire, literally their house, its darkness. The ability for alun- words to be combined with the ml-ml is new to Asha'ille grammar.

Glossary

¨Q. Q (ablaut)
alun-mi. PREV
arînpart. try
ayanadeix. SUBJECTS
cchiyann. young woman
chipaln. sprout
chirón. star
dasadj. all
dirshavv. ask
-ecprsn. 3SN
-ejhprsn. (beloved)
ejhn. beloved
en̤ipro. self
-enilmood. should
énîllevv. feel
eseiren. darkness
esúnn. sky
esvasp. PRG
feilánn. house
-împl. PL
îroyîn. nightwatcher
-îthadj. ADJ
-j-part. able
jhocop. yes
jhorcop. EQUIV
-k-part. unable
keadv. (end-ADV)
kedáadv. (end-from)
kénîllevv. see
kepadv. (end-because)
kesîkadv. (end-then)
keyanun. TIME
kretconj. but
kunan. night
mirvv. come
ml-mlposs. (intangible possession)
neart. OBJ
-niprsn. (self)
non. it
nyaiòln. melancholy
pithevv. rest
rékretîln. long ago
-sami. 1
sarnn. boy
sholan. sadness
sshakquo. (end-quote)
sshavv. say
teconj. and
vedáadv. from
veladv. toward
vepadv. because
vesconj. while
vesaeradv. under
vesîkconj. then