Asha'ille is undergoing a spelling reform and this page might not have been updated yet!

If you see many apostrophes, it's pre-reform. If you see î and only a few apostrophes, it's post-reform. — Arthaey

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summer 2009

The original Asha'ille text was written by Taliesin on June 26, 2009. I translated from his Asha'ille into Kamakawi, David Peterson's conlang. The analyzed Asha'ille that you see on this page, however, is the "corrected" Asha'ille that I wrote, based on Taliesin's text. I have included explanatory paragraphs interspersed between the sentences.

Note: My Asha'ille text has been updated to conform with the spelling reform. Taliesin's text has remained as he wrote it, and the corrections ignore any spelling that was correct at the time but is now out-of-date.

Orthographic

Asha'ille

[0] Ne Dunath Alcáspièvon

[1] Vek tuyaea alcáspièveithîm das, veia caruman. [2] Jhor alcáspièvon te samigha. [3] Jhiviken gyev fiván ne cichadîm, [4] vek sar teizavoneithîm done shéshînarîm k'. [5] T'vesîk jhor vae te syîrún. [6] Naruv drayîth haláinîm ne kîlémavoneithîm. [7] Saemirveithîm ne mmaváshîth krîtharún t'vesîk vo ne caruman. [8] Vol caruman shav epararev [9] ne gejhelle gaejîn 'sa alcáspeth. [10] Vek lóbea alcáspièveithîm das, vel cresîn.

English

[0] Seasonal Traveling

[1] We all travel to the ocean in the spring. [2] The traveling is difficult. [3] Snow still covers the passes [4] when we first cross the mountains. [5] Then we are at the forest. [6] Fallen trees prevent our crossing. [7] We arrive at the windy steppes, and then at the ocean. [8] Over the ocean, we talk and sell [9] very good traveling food. [10] We all travel home in the winter.

Asha'ille (Taliesin's)

[0] [1] Vek'tuyaea, veia'caruman alcáspi'evaym-eithim das [2] Jhor'alcáspi'evad-on t'samigha. [3] ...jhiviken kemavgyev fiván ne cichadaym-im. [4] Ve^k'sar teizav^-onaym-eithim ^do-ne shéshinarim, ... [5] Vesik'syirún,T'vesik jhor'vae t'syirún. [6] naruv dravyith dehalaizenhaláin^-im ne mlaymseithim kilémavad-on. [7] Saemirvaym-eithim veiane mmaváshith kritharún keia, te' vesik'caruman. [8] Vol'caruman shatruvaym te epararevaym [9] ne gejhelle alcáspethith gaejin. [10] Vek'lóbea, alcáspi'evaym-eithim das ne ^vel'cresin.

Kamakawi (Mine)

[0] [1] Au ale uei ala e aila pe lenelele. [2] Meuto ale. [3] A itiva pake i kititiú hie [4] aupe ale uei iu pake heva ape. [5] U uei i ala e falele. [6] Au li kapolo kawau'u i amo, ae ale uei i amo heva, au liwi uamo i uei. [7] Au ale uei ala u ava fale hevaka ko a, upe neale uei e aila. [8] U kala oi apule uei [9] u hava ale'u ea'a eyana heva e aila. [10] Ale uei e palei pe etielele.

Parts of Speech Legend

adj
adjective
adv
adverb
conj
conjunction
cop
copula
mi
modifier
n
noun
pl
plural
prsn
person
v
verb

Interlinear

orthographic version
morphemic breakdown
IPA pronunciation
part of speech
translation
Asha'ille (Taliesin's): translation
Kamakawi (Mine): translation
Ne Dunath Alcáspièvon
ne duna -îth alcáspièv -on
ˈdunɑ ɪθ ɑlˈkɑspiʔɛv on
art n adj v n
OBJ season ADJ travel NOM
Seasonal Traveling

The original text didn't have a title, but I always title my own texts.

Vek tuyaea alcáspièveithîm das, veia caruman.
vek tuyaea alcáspièv -eith -îm das veia caruman
vɛk tuˈje.ɑ ɑlˈkɑspiʔɛv ɪm dɑs ˈve.ɑ kɑˈɹumɑn
adv n v prsn pl adj adv n
when spring travel (acquaintance) PL all goal ocean
We all travel to the ocean in the spring.
Asha'ille (Taliesin's): Vek'tuyaea, veia'caruman alcáspi'evaym-eithim das
Kamakawi (Mine): Au ale uei ala e aila pe lenelele.

Throughout the text, Taliesin used the personal conjugation -aym we, which is from the set of non-empathic words. Normally these would only be used to talk about animals, or to derogatorily talk about humans. A speaker talking about his own people this way is quite weird. So much so that I'm assuming I just didn't do a good enough job of explaining the usage, thereby misleading Taliesin to use the wrong set of personal conjugations.

For my version of the text, I have chosen -eithîm (das) my acquiances and I (all of us) as the primary subject. This seems the appropriate choice for discussing one's people. Anywhere that Taliesin used -aym, I have replaced it with -eithîm.

The other change made to Taliesin's first sentence is to move one of the two adverbial phrases to the end of sentence. Only one adverbial phrase is allowed to precede the verb; which one was merely a stylistic choice, in this case.

Jhor alcáspièvon te samigha.
jhor alcáspièv -on te samigha
ʒoɹ ɑlˈkɑspiʔɛv on sɑˈmiχɑ
cop v n conj adj
EQUIV travel NOM and difficult
The traveling is difficult.
Asha'ille (Taliesin's): Jhor'alcáspi'evad-on t'samigha.
Kamakawi (Mine): Meuto ale.

The derivational suffix -ad is added to a verb to form a related noun. For example, alcáspi'ad might mean travels. (Note that the verb's final v is removed before adding the nominalizer.) To form the noun traveling, use the nominalizer suffix -on (without removing the final v): alcáspi'evon.

A minor orthography nitpick is applying the consecutive apostrophes rule. The word alcáspi'ev already has an internal apostrophe (representing a glottal stop). When jhor is added with a prefix-joining apostrophe, the second apostrophe must be dropped.

(Of course, the apostrophes rules are no longer current since the spelling reform.)

Jhiviken gyev fiván ne cichadîm,
jhiviken gyev fiván ne cichad -îm
ʒiˈvɪkɛn ɡjɛv fiˈvɑn ˈkiʧɑd ɪm
adv v n art n pl
still cover snow OBJ pass PL
Snow still covers the passes
Asha'ille (Taliesin's): ...jhiviken kemavgyev fiván ne cichadaym-im.
Kamakawi (Mine): A itiva pake i kititiú hie

Taliesin wrote this clause and the following one in the reverse order from how they're presented here. I have moved them to follow the ordering in my version of the text for easier side-by-side comparison.

Only adverbial phrases of one word may precede the verb; all longer phrases must occur after the core VSO portion of the sentence. This is why I had to move the vek...k' clause after the main gyev clause.

The verb kemav to sit was the best choice for expressing snow-covered mountains, given the words that existed when Taliesin wrote his text. However, I decided to coin gyev to cover to better describe the situation.

Finally, it looks like Taliesin confused the verbal personal conjugation -aym with the simple plural -im when translating passes.

vek sar teizavoneithîm done shéshînarîm k'.
vek sar teizav -on -eith -îm do- ne shéshînar -îm kek
vɛk sɑɹ teˈzɑv on ɪm do ˈʃɛʃɪnɑɹ ɪm kɛk
adv adj v n prsn pl conj art n pl adv
when one pass through NOM (acquaintance) PL SUBORD OBJ mountain PL (end-when)
when we first cross the mountains.
Asha'ille (Taliesin's): Ve^k'sar teizav^-onaym-eithim ^do-ne shéshinarim, ...
Kamakawi (Mine): aupe ale uei iu pake heva ape.

I had not documented (nor decided, actually) how to form ordinals from cardinal numbers. In that light, Taliesin's ve'sar ADVERB-one is perfectly logical. In fact, I like his method enough to officially adopt it (with only the slight modification of using vek when) to form such ordinal temporal adverbs.

The verb teizav to pass through is not the main verb; rather, it is part of a subordinate clause. It therefore requires the suffix -on. Similarly, the ne of the emdebbed clause must be done instead. Them's the rules of subordinate clauses.

T'vesîk jhor vae te syîrún.
te vesîk jhor vae te syîrún
ˈvɛsɪk ʒoɹ ve sjɪˈɹun
conj conj cop adv conj n
and then EQUIV where and forest
Then we are at the forest.
Asha'ille (Taliesin's): Vesik'syirún,T'vesik jhor'vae t'syirún.
Kamakawi (Mine): U uei i ala e falele.

I misclassified vesik as an adverb when it really seems to act like a coordinating conjunction: it can only be used to join sentences together. (Furthermore, coordinating conjunctions want te and to precede them.)

Because vesik is supposed to join complete sentences, vesik'syirún is an ungrammatical fragment. To fix this, I've expanded it into a full sentence.

Naruv drayîth haláinîm ne kîlémavoneithîm.
naruv drayîth haláin -îm ne kîlémav -on -eith -îm
nɑˈɹuv ˈdrɑjɪθ hɑˈlɑi̯n ɪm kɪˈlɛmɑv on ɪm
v adj n pl art v n prsn pl
prevent fallen tree PL OBJ cross NOM (acquaintance) PL
Fallen trees prevent our crossing.
Asha'ille (Taliesin's): naruv dravyith dehalaizenhaláin^-im ne mlaymseithim kilémavad-on.
Kamakawi (Mine): Au li kapolo kawau'u i amo, ae ale uei i amo heva, au liwi uamo i uei.

When deriving the adjective fallen from the verb drav fall, the final v needs to be removed first. Then a y should be inserted because otherwise the word would have two consecutive vowels. So, the adjective should be drayith fallen rather than dravith.

I think Taliesin must have meant haláin tree in place of dehalaizen (a sentient feline species related to Cresaeans). It fits much better in the context of syirún forest and the adjective drayith fallen. And if there are enough fallen trees that it blocks the people's progress, then it must be more than one. So I added the plural marker -im.

Finally, there is the matter of translating (prevent) our crossing. In Asha'ille, this is not considered a possessive. It would be better to think of the English phrase as (prevent) us crossing or (prevent) us from crossing. We cross is kilemáveithim; nominalized with -on it becomes kilemávoneithim. No possessive necessary.

Saemirveithîm ne mmaváshîth krîtharún t'vesîk vo ne caruman.
saemirv -eith -îm ne mmavásh -îth krîtharún te vesîk vo ne caruman
seˈmiɹv ɪm mə̆mɑˈvɑʃ ɪθ krɪθɑˈɹun ˈvɛsɪk vo kɑˈɹumɑn
v prsn pl art n adj n conj conj pro art n
arrive (acquaintance) PL OBJ wind ADJ steppe and then PRO-VERB OBJ ocean
We arrive at the windy steppes, and then at the ocean.
Asha'ille (Taliesin's): Saemirvaym-eithim veiane mmaváshith kritharún keia, te' vesik'caruman.
Kamakawi (Mine): Au ale uei ala u ava fale hevaka ko a, upe neale uei e aila.

The verb saemirv to arrive takes the arrival destination as its object. So instead of introducting the location mmaváshish kritharún windy steppes with the adverb veia goal, just use ne to introduce the object.

As mentioned previously, vesik can only join sentences. Rather than repeat the verb saemirv, use the pro-verb vo.

Vol caruman shav epararev
vol caruman shav epararev
vol kɑˈɹumɑn ʃɑv ɛpɑɹɑˈɹɛv
adv n v v
by ocean speak sell
Over the ocean, we talk and sell
Asha'ille (Taliesin's): Vol'caruman shatruvaym te epararevaym
Kamakawi (Mine): U kala oi apule uei

The verb shatruv to ask instructions doesn't make much sense in context here. My best guess is that Taliesin meant shav to speak or to talk instead.

The personal conjugation can be dropped from these verbs because it is the same subject as the preceding sentence.

The conjunction te and is not used in simple serial verb constructions.

ne gejhelle gaejîn 'sa alcáspeth.
ne gejhelle gaejîn alun- -sa alcáspeth
ɡɛˈʒɛl ˈɡeʤɪn ɑˈlun ɑlˈkɑspɛθ
art adj n mi mi adj
OBJ very good food PREV 1 travelling
very good traveling food.
Asha'ille (Taliesin's): ne gejhelle alcáspethith gaejin.
Kamakawi (Mine): u hava ale'u ea'a eyana heva e aila.

The word alcáspeth traveling is already an adjective; no extra adjectivizer -ith is necessary. Were you to actually intend to say alcáspethith, it would mean something like traveling-y.

Only one adjective is allowed to precede a noun; I decided to emphasize gejhelle very good and leave alcáspeth traveling as additional description. To link the second adjective back to the noun, I used alunsa (commonly abbreviated as 'sa) to show it describes the word immediately previous.

Vek lóbea alcáspièveithîm das, vel cresîn.
vek lóbea alcáspièv -eith -îm das vel cresîn
vɛk ˈlobe.ɑ ɑlˈkɑspiʔɛv ɪm dɑs vɛl ˈkɹɛsɪn
adv n v prsn pl adj adv n
when winter travel (acquaintance) PL all toward home
We all travel home in the winter.
Asha'ille (Taliesin's): Vek'lóbea, alcáspi'evaym-eithim das ne ^vel'cresin.
Kamakawi (Mine): Ale uei e palei pe etielele.

Unlike saemirv to arrive, alcáspi'ev to travel does not take a location as its object. So instead of introducing cresin home with the object marker ne, use the adverb toward.

The personal conjugation could also have been dropped in this sentence, but I decided to repeat the subject of the first sentence for parallelism.

Glossary

alcáspethadj. travelling
alcáspièvv. travel
alun-mi. PREV
carumann. ocean
cichadn. pass
cresînn. home
dasadj. all
do-conj. SUBORD
drayîthadj. fallen
dunan. season
-eithprsn. (acquaintance)
epararevv. sell
fivánn. snow
gaejînn. food
gejhelleadj. very good
gyevv. cover
haláinn. tree
-împl. PL
-îthadj. ADJ
jhivikenadv. still
jhorcop. EQUIV
kekadv. (end-when)
kîlémavv. cross
krîtharúnn. steppe
lóbean. winter
mmaváshn. wind
naruvv. prevent
neart. OBJ
-onn. NOM
-sami. 1
saemirvv. arrive
samighaadj. difficult
sarposs. 3SM
shavv. speak
shéshînarn. mountain
syîrúnn. forest
teconj. and
teizavv. pass through
tuyaean. spring
vaeadv. where
veiaadv. goal
vekadv. when
veladv. toward
vesîkconj. then
vopro. PRO-VERB
voladv. by